WFPHA Newsletter June 2017


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In this Newsletter:







1.- Hot Topics in Public Health: WFPHA Speaks Up

@ 70th World Health Assembly

At the 70th World Health Assembly, the WFPHA was more present than ever in what has been a very active year. The WFPHA delivered four statements to the WHA.


Statement 13.1: Human Resources for Health and Implementation of the Outcomes of the United Nations' High-Level Commission on Health Employment and Economic Growth

13.1 Photo

 WFPHA intern, Adam Thorburn, delivers Statement 13.1 on the importance of students and young professionals in the work place. The WFPHA has proved how much it values the engagement of young professionals. The Governing Council passed a resolution to create a dedicated position on its Council for a young professional to hold.


This statement encourages the WHO to engage young professionals, and see the numerous benefits that they bring to the work place, such as energy, creativity, and new ideas.   

Statement 13.4: Evaluation and Review of the Global Strategy and Plan of Action on Public Health, Innovation and

Michael Moore 13.4

Intellectual Property


President Michael Moore introduces how the Global Charter for the Public's Health can be implemented through the lens of the Melbourne Demand for Action.


WFPHA strives and encourages others to fully apply the mechanisms available to government, industry, private enterprise, academia, and civil society to protect the public’s health, embrace prevention, and promote health and well-being.

Statement 16.2: The Role of the Health Sector in the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management Towards the 2020 Goal and Beyond


Susan Wilburn, member of the Environmental Health Working Group, delivered statement 16.2, and endorsed the WHO Road Map on chemicals which contributes to the implementation of the Sustainable Development Goals in many areas including goal 3) health, 6) water and sanitation, and 12) chemicals and waste. WFPHA believes that the overall goal should focus on hazard reduction and aim at continuously improving the safety of chemicals, and not only managing hazardous chemicals safely.

Statement 17K: Strengthening Emergency and Essential Surgical Care and Anesthesia as a Component of Universal Health Coverage


This statement by the WFPHA Oral Health Working Group raises awareness that people in poor and marginalized communities, especially in low-income countries, may not be able to access or afford dental care which is provided to internationally acceptable standards of infection control. The WFPHA therefore urges for tax exemption for dental supplies and equipment for infection control and prevention.

@ Globally

International health community rejects TTP revival in open letter to trade miniters meeting (FED)

Prominent public health, advocacy, and professional organizations have called on trade ministers from eleven remaining Trans-Pacific Partnership countries not to attempt to resurrect the deal at their meeting in Hanoi on May 21-22, 2017. The open letter is signed by the World Federation of Public Health Associations and leading health organizations from most of the non-US participating countries - including Australia, New Zealand, and Japan, whose governments are leading moves to revive the agreements since the U.S. withdrawal. The signatories reiterated concerns they and others had previously raised regarding the negative impacts of the Agreement on people's rights to health, access to affordable medicines, and the ability of governments to regulate health-damaging activities of corporations.

The petition, signed by the WFPHA, can be found here.

A Public Health Approach to the Proposed Legislation to Legalize and Regulate Cannabis in Canada

The President of WFPHA, Michael Moore, recently wrote a letter to the Prime Miniser of Canada, Justin Trudeau, on Canada’s proposed legislation to legalize and regulate cannabis. WFPHA applauds the Government of Canada’s decision to enact legislation to legalize the non-medical production, distribution, and use of cannabis. President Moore also states that legalizing cannabis does not mean ignoring the significant health risks associated with this substance. The legislation must recognize and consider the real risks associated with cannabis consumption, to ensure that it includes disease/injury prevention, harm reduction approaches, and the means/tools to prevent consumption among children and adolescents. What Canada does with respect to the legalization of cannabis will be an example for the world, and we at WFPHA hope it will be a positive role model.

To view the entire letter, please click here.






2.- Recap of the 70th World Health Assembly

Congratulations to Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus

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The World Health Assembly elected Dr. Tedros of Ethiopia as the new Director-General of the World Health Organization. He will begin his 5-year term on 1 July, 2017, and will succeed Dr. Margaret Chan in this position. Prior to his election, Dr. Tedros served as Minister of Foreign Affairs in Ethiopia from 2012-2016. He also served as the Minister of Health in Ethiopia from 2005-2012. The World Federation of Public Health Associations would like to formally congratulate Dr. Tedros on becoming the new Director General of the World Health Organization!

See the official congratulatory letter here

Margaret Chan's final address

While we congratulate Dr. Tedros, and wish him the best of luck moving forward, we must also thank Dr. Margaret Chan, and reflect on the improvements to global public health during her 10 years of service.



HIV has been, and continues to be one of the greatest challenges, and most devastating infectious diseases that the world of global public health has ever faced. A decade after the United Nations declared HIV an unprecedented human catastrophe, much progress has been made, and the future is looking more optimistic than ever. In 2011, the US National Institutes of Health conducted a trial, which indicated that antiretroviral therapy also contributes to HIV prevention. This Picture for Margaret Chan articlebreakthrough had a major impact, which was reflected in 2015, when the lowest number of deaths and newly infected people was reported in almost two decades. “Further expanding access to treatment is now at the heart of new “fast track” treatment targets for 2020, with the aim of ending the AIDS epidemic as a public health threat by 2030. WHO estimates that meeting the fast-track targets could prevent 1.6 million new infections and 600,000 deaths per year” (Chan, 2017).


The world was not at all fortunate with the 2014 Ebola outbreak that utterly devastated the people of Guinea, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. Dr. Margaret Chan claimed that she was personally accountable for this failed response. The Democratic Republic of the Congo has a new Ebola outbreak, and a coalition is trying to develop new vaccines. The world is better prepared for this new outbreak, but not nearly well enough.

Other key points made by Dr. Margaret Chan during her final address at the 70th World Health Assembly include:

  • Childhood obesity, which is a warning sign of more heart disease, cancer, and diabetes.

  • The eradication of Polio and Guinea Worm disease have been identified as a realistic and achievable goal.

  • Nearly half of all deaths worldwide now have a recorded cause of death – this is a huge accomplishment.

  • The most contentious issues revolve around the access to medicine. Medicines must be more affordable, and pharmaceutical prices must be managed. Healthcare all revolves around affordable medicines.

  • Dr. Margaret Chan concludes with brief advice: the WHO must stand for faitness, continue to make reductions in inequality, continue to strengthen health systems, and continue to make accountability frameworks.

  • Dr. Margaret Chan also notes the importance of scientific evidence in what people now describe as the "post-truth world."

  • Reflects that we must listen to civil society, who are best placed to hold tobacco and alcohol businesses accountable. They can give the people a face and a voice.

Dr. Margaret Chan concluded with her most important advice: “Remember the people. Behind every number is a person who defines our common humanity and deserves our compassion - especially when preventable death can be prevented.”  


To read the full report by Dr. Margaret Chan, “Ten Years in Public Health: 2007-2017” please click here.



3.- Diplomats of the Global Charter & Charter News

Global Charter now available in Kiswahili

The Global Charter Editorial is now translated in Kiswahili. Read it!

#publichealth #globalhealth #WFPHA #globalcharter

Meet the new Diplomats of the Global Charter



          Immediate Past-President
          Dr. Mengistu Asnake

          Ethiopian Public Health Association

          Country: Ethiopia


        Prof. Jorid Grimeland

          Oslo and Akershus University College of Applied Science  

          Country: Norway

Claude Daniel Betts

             Dr. Claude Daniel Betts

              Panamanian Public Health Society (PPHS)  

              Country: Panama

Screen Shot 2017 05 30 at 2.25.51 PM

          Dr. Maryam AlFahran

             Consultant Dental Public Health

             Country: Saudi Arabia

Dominique Kondji Kondji

          Dr. Dominique Kondji Kondji    

          Cameroon Public Health Association

          Country: Cameroon

de Souza


             Dr. Luis Eugenio de Souza

             Federal University of Bahia (UFBA)

             Country: Brazil





4.- Members' Newsletters



5.- WFPHA latest meetings & activities:

 16th World Congress on Public Health - Rome 2020

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These two pictures were taken in Rome in May 2017.  Professor Walter Ricciardi and Professor Carlo Signorelli from SItI met with Professor Michael Moore and Dr. Marta Lomazzi from WFPHA to prepare the new World Congress on Public Health to be held in Rome in 2020.







IMG 9207

Professor Michael Moore, WFPHA President, visiting the headquarters of the Italian Society of Hygiene, Preventive Medicine and Public Health (SItI) with Carlo Signorelli, SItI past-President.







 ASPHER Retreat

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Professor Bettina Borisch and Dr. Marta Lomazzi attending a conference in Rennes, France, in June 2017. This conference was held by ASPHER, The Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region. Implementing the Global Charter for the Public's Health into the curriculum of public health schools in the European region was discussed, along with integrating leadership, advocacy, and governance into the Master's program.







Alliance for Health Promotion

On 22 May, 2017, Professor Bettina Borisch was invited to attend an event held by the Alliance for Health Promotion. Their mission is to strengthen global efforts to improve health by bridging the gap between international declarations and local realities, catalyzing and galvanizing CSOs health promotion actions, and advocating for a holistic approach to health. This event took place at the main office of the World Health Organization in Geneva, where Professor Borisch presented the Global Charter for the Public's Health, and took part in the discussion that followed.

Taiwan and Switzerland Joint Forum on Health Insurance

On 24 May, 2017, dignitaries from the National Health Insurance Administration of Taiwan as well as the Taiwan Health Minister met with the Swiss Society for Health Policy to exchange professional views and experiences on national health insurance issues.


NHIA Director-General Lee Po-Chang gave a presentation titled, “Achievements and Challenges of Taiwan National Health Insurance” and engaged in professional exchanges with Swiss delegates, including Professor Bettina Borisch, of the WFPHA and board member of the Swiss Society of Health Policy .



6.- WFPHA Working Groups

Student and Young Professional Working Group

The governing council has approved the set up ot the Student and Young Professional Working Group that will be Chaired by Thomas Piggott. More information coming soon.

Global Health Equity Working Group

Please welcome Vina Hulamm and Stefan Buttigieg, the new Co-Chair's of the Global Health Equity Working Group! Thank you to Laetitia Rispel, the past Chair, for the great work!

Moreover tha group has been renamed as "Global Health Equity and Digital Technology" to highlight its main focus.

Disaster and Emergency Working Group

Please welcome Chadia Wannous, the new Chair Person of the Disaster and Emergency Working Group! Thank you to Ahmed Rahmanzai, the past Chair, for the great work!

The aim of the working group is to advocate for the integration of public health in disasters and emergencies. Through work with partners and others, the Working Group focuses attention on human health effects of emergencies and disasters, both natural and man-made, and helps to shape global policies. 

Oral Health Working Group

The Oral Health WG has been very active lately. As discussed in Section 1, they delivered Statement 17K to the World Health Assembly, on "Strengthening Emergency and Essential Surgical Care and Anesthesia as a Component of Universal Health Coverage."

 An editorial on this topic will be published soon, stay tuned!

The aim of the Oral Health WG is to consider all aspects of oral health, and aim to influence policies on dental public health. Recently, the WG published in the Journal of Public Health Policy the article “Dental public health (DPH) capacity worldwide: Results of a global survey”.

The article can be found here.

Environmental Health Working Group

The Environmental Health WG has also been staying active. They delivered Statement 16.2 to the World Health Assembly on "The Role of the Health Sector in the Strategic Approach to International Chemicals Management Towards the 2020 Goal and Beyond."

The aim of the Environmental Health WG  is to influence international policy on environmental health by bringing environmental health issues to the public health community, and a public health approach to the environmental advocacy community. 



7.- Advertising & Courses

Advertising annual report

Improving the Quality of Health Services - HARVARD INTERNATIONAL SHORT COURSE


HARVARD INTERNATIONAL SHORT COURSE Improving the Quality of Health Services
October 2 – 12, 2017, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, Application Deadline August 2, 2017

Course Directors: Diana Bowser, Brandeis University; and Pedro Saturno, University of Murcia, Spain.

Purpose: This course has been designed to improve the conceptual and practical skills of senior officials and health care managers who are trying to assess and improve the quality of health services. Participants attending this course will learn an effective conceptual framework for the design of an overall health improvement system; and learn to plan strategically for health system improvement.

Course Topics
- Health Sector Reform and Its Relationship to Quality
- Management Reform
- Developing and Implementing Clinical Practice Guidelines
- Overview of Quality
- Strategic Planning for Quality
- Accreditation
- Human Resources
- Organizational Change
- Performance Contracting
- Negotiation and Conflict Resolution

Participants will be learning from experience gained in the United States, as well as many other countries of the world.

Click here to download pdf.

MENZIES - School of Health Research


Make a real difference locally and globally

Study Public Health

With Australia's leader in Indigenous and tropical health research

Course Name: Master of Public health CRICOS Course Code: 090536M
Course Name: Master by Research (IAS) CRICOS Course Code: 053295G
Course Name: Doctor of Philosophy (IAS) CRICOS Course Code: 053291A

Tools for Health Policy Makers and Managers - HARVARD INTERNATIONAL SHORT COURSE

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HARVARD INTERNATIONAL SHORT COURSE Making Decentralization Work: Tools for Health Policy Makers and Managers
August 7 – 17, 2017, Boston, Massachusetts, USA, Application Deadline June 7, 2017

Course Directors: Thomas Bossert, Harvard T. H. Chan School of Public Health; and Diana Bowser, Brandeis University

Purpose: Experienced Harvard faculty developed this workshop to better equip policy makers and managers to meet the challenges encountered designing, implementing and managing a decentralization transition. While both theory and practice will be included, the emphasis will be on practical skill building.

Course Topics:

-Health System Decentralization: Policy Options
-Finance and Expenditure Overview
-Introduction to Decentralization Framework

-Human Resources in Decentralized Health Systems
-Negotiation and Conflict Resolution
-Policy Maker, Managing the Political Process
-Managing Organizational Change
-Strategic Management and Quality Management

Participants will be learning from experience gained in the United States, as well as many other countries of the world.

Click here to download pdf.



8.- What's on

Congratulations to Dr. Deborah Klein Walker, awardee of the Paul Revere Award!

Deb Klein WalkerThis award is a great honor. In 1799, Boston established the first board of health, and the first health department in the United States. Paul Revere served as the President.

Dr. Deborah Klein Walker, EdD, is a former Vice President and Senior Fellow at Abt Associates and has more than 40 years of experience as a behavioral science researcher, public health leader, and advocate for public health and social justice.

She is currently in the Governing Council and in the Policy Committee of the WFPHA.

Dr. Walker spent 16 years with the Massachusetts Department of Public Health, where she was the Maternal and Child Health Title V Director and Associate Commissioner for Programs and Prevention.

Prior to state service, she was a faculty member for over a decade at the Harvard School of Public Health and Harvard Graduate School of Education.

Currently, she is the President of the Global Alliance for Behavioral Health and Social Justice; an editorial board member of the Maternal and Child Health Journal; an adjunct faculty member of the Boston University School of Public Health; and a Board Member of Family Voices, the Institute of Community Health and the Cambridge Health Alliance Foundation.

She is a former president of the American Public Health Association. 

The declaration of the sixth ministerial conference on environment and health has officially been adopted!

Facebook blurb picture for Whats On

After 3 days of discussions and deliberations, the Sixth Ministerial Conference on Environment and Health drew to a close. Around 500 delegates and observers from European Member States, plus Canada, the Philippines and the United States, and 15 international and nongovernmental organizations attended the Conference. Over the 3 days, the participants took stock of the progress made on environment and health in the WHO European Region, as well as committing the Region to further action, culminating in the signing of the Ostrava Declaration.

The main objective of this Declaration is to create a better and healthier environment that enhances the health and well-being of all people in the European Region. Read it here.

Multisectoral Coordination on NCDs: The Case of Tobacco Control in Uruguay

On 6 June, 2017, Tabaré Vásquez, the President of Uruguay, delivered a powerful speech about the importance of tobacco control. Tobacco smoking is a chronic addictive disease that evolves with relapses. Nicotine is responsible for addiction, acting at the central nervous system. It is one of the most addictive drugs, even more so than cocaine or heroine. Today, industrialized tobacco products are leading to a global health problem.

There is a common myth that States receive economic benefit from tobacco smoking. The World Bank debunked this myth, by saying that "if tobacco smoking is eliminated, there will not be economic losses, but many countries will profit". President Vásquez made the point that "Tobacco is the only industry that kills its own customers", so it goes to young people to get new customers.


President Vásquez implemented a policy in Uruguay to become 100% free from tobacco smoke. On 8 July, 2014, parliament passed a law fully prohibiting publicity, sponsoring, patronage, and exhibition of tobacco at the points of sale, with no exceptions. This policy banned misleading terms and prohibited marketing electronic cigarettes. This led to a 90% reduction in air pollution in closed places, which ranks Uruguay 2nd in the world air quality rankings. Smoking went down 20% in the 13-17 age range. The smoking ban led to a 22% reduction in hospitalizations.

The tobacco industry makes more in annual revenue that the GDP of Uruguay, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Ecuador, Bolivia, and Jamaica combined. Lung cancer is one of the least curable cancers, and the incidence rate is basically the same as the mortality rate. This is extremely easy to prevent, by not smoking tobacco. While this certainly is a more complex problem, the strong political will to promote change made by President Vásquez and the Government of Uruguay is a great example for all countries to follow moving forward.

Dr Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, WHO DG, Thomas Zeltner, former Secretary of State of Health, Switzerland and Douglas Bettcher, Director, Department for the Prevention and Control of NCDs, WHO have provided their feedbacks on this important achivement. The panel has been moderated by Prof.Ilona Kickbusch .

The Global polio eradication initiative

During the 70th World Health Assembly, an important topic of discussion was the Global Polio Eradication Initiative, and replacing trivalent OPV (tOPV) with bivalent OPV (bOPV). Delegates also expressed concern about the continued shortage of Inactivated Poliovirus Vaccine (IPV), and noted the urgent need to contain polioviruses in safe facilities. They also stressed the urgency to ensure that polio transition requirements are fully incorporated into the development of the next WHO budget and planning cycle.

polio screenshotThe relevance of these statements is especially important as the WHO announced in the beginning of June that a new Polio outbreak is spreading in the governing region of Deir-Ez-Zor, the largest city of Eastern Syria. This outbreak is due to a rare circulating vaccine-derived poliovirus type 2 (cVDPV2) isolated from two cases of acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) that emerged in this under-immunized area.

Although two campaigns have been conducted in March and April 2017 using bivalent oral polio vaccine (OPV), full coverage intervention is still very difficult, because of the political instability and six years of civil war in the Syrian Arab Republic.  Nevertheless, United Nations Special Envoy for Syria, Mr. Jan Egeland, confirmed that trucks loaded with polio vaccine are being prepared to ship into the previously mentioned area of Deir-Ez-Zor, which is controlled by the Islamic State.

The weakened virus, used as an oral vaccine, can spread from one child to another. This will either passively vaccinate the child, or in some rare cases, mutate and becoming a virulent disease again. Polio was successfully eliminated from Syria through vaccination in 2013 and 2014, but this new outbreak shows that child vaccination and disease surveillance are crucial to maintaining the eradication of this disease.

 Medicine: The High Cost of Life in Colombia

As medicine and health technology becomes more advanced, it is quite easy to be disillusioned that the status of healthcare is increasing all around the world. The United Nations reported that in 2015, medications were the sixth most commercialized product in the world. The health system of Colombia is a good example to demonstrate that even where medicine and treatment is physically available, it is often not accessible due to its high cost. An article titled, “Alto costo de los medicamentos en Colombia”, which was published in El Tiempo demonstrated this barrier. The stark contrast in health outcomes between the rich and the poor became clear when the former President of Colombia, Ernesto Samper Pizano fell sick with Hepatitis C after a blood transfusion.

For the former president, resources for treatment were not as limited as they were for the rest of the population and he was cured at the high cost of 84 thousand United States dollars over the course of 12 weeks. It was not until many years later when pharmaceutical representatives came to his office and informed him they could lower the price by more than six thousand US dollars; that Samper realized what a grave problem lied within the health system. Even with this reduction, the necessary treatment for HepC would still come at a cost of 78 thousand US dollars. This reduction would have done little to include more of the population in access to treatment.

This public health problem in Colombia transcends treatment for Hepatitis C and speaks a louder volume about the overall situation of access to medicine in Latin America. According to the World Health Organization, 700 thousand people die each year due to lack of access to life-saving medication. Despite this problem, the Colombian health system offers more comprehensive coverage than is common throughout the region. On average, Colombians pay 15 percent out of pocket whereas citizens of other countries are often required to pay as much as 40 percent of the cost of total treatment.

So, what is the solution to this problem? Critics of pharmaceutical companies make the case that the human right to life should be prioritized ahead of commercial interests and the Minister of Health agrees.  He has decided to make the regulation of medication prices a high priority and to control the entrance of new medication into the market. The Minister expects that this will help the industry focus on medications that really work for the population. 

For more information, click here.


9.- WFPHA Members Communication

Meet the New Interns!

Maryam 2017

Maryam Boutefah joined WFPHA as an intern in June 2017, and plans to stay with the Federation until mid-October 2017. She is currently pursuing her Masters in Public Management with a focus in Public Health policies at the University of Geneva. She also holds a Bachelor's degree in International Relations, and a Federal certificate in Administration and Business.

Ms. Boutefah alreadz has a year of full-time working experience for a non-profit international federation that strives for better working conditions around the world. She also worked for a Swiss public hospital to carry out an epidemiological survey launched by The Swiss Federal Office of Public Health, and in 2010, she was Switzerland's Ambassador for the Young European's Science Parliament in Brussels, where she discussed controversial issues relating to health.

Through her academic background and working experiences, Ms. Boutefah acquired a greater understanding of the importance of international cooperation to achieve global health security, and is passionate about becoming a specialist in the sector.


LinkedIn photo

 Adam Thorburn joined the WFPHA as in intern on 22 May, 2017. He comes from Boston, Massachusetts in the United States, and will continue his work with the Federation until August. Mr. Thorburn is currently pursuing his Bachelor of Science in Health Management & Policy at the University of New Hampshire. Besides the United States, Mr. Thorburn studied for one semester in Rome, Italy, where his passion for global public health grew significantly. Academically, he is interested in public health, epidemiology, environmental health, disease control and prevention, finance, and economics.


Mr. Thorburn also works part-time for The Fund for Global Health, where he advocates for global health solutions with the greatest potential to avert preventable deaths and disability. After earning his Bachelor’s degree, Mr. Thorburn hopes to serve as a Peace Corps Volunteer before beginning his career in the field of global public health.


Call for Resolutions and Statements

We strongly encourage WFPHA Members to develop policy papers and statements and to advocate with us for a better local and global public health!

If you wish to submit resolutions or statements on important public health issues relevant locally and globally and to the Federation as well, please consider the wider spectrum of the Global Public Health, reaching far beyond the medical paradigm. Issues such as equity, trade, violence, social health insurance, environmental health, public health training and research, schools of public health, professional organizations, and workforce development – to mention only a few – have an impact on the health of the people.

You can reach a worldwide audience by passing a resolution in the next WFPHA Assembly. To submit your resolution, please follow the Guidance on Development of Policy (updated in 2017).

Resolutions should be submitted by December 31st 2017 through the on-line system.

Please do not hesitate to contact us for further information!



10.- Publications

Journal of Public Health Policy - The Federation's pages

In each issue of the Journal of Public Health Policy (JPHP), journaleditors include an article commissioned by the World Federation of Public Health Associations (WFPHA), written by leading authors in the field. Edited by Bettina Borisch and Marta Lomazzi at the WFPHA, JPHP is pleased to make the Federation’s Pages free to view in celebration of JPHP’s continuing affiliation with the WFPHA.

2017 articles

More articles coming soon, stay tuned!

Interesting Publications

Three Models of Governance of Non-Communicable Diseases and Their Challenges

Researchers from UNAIDS Switzerland and the Institute for Global Health, University College London, reviewed and analyzed the challenges and impact of three models of governance of Non-communicable diseases (NCD) risk : self-regulation by industry, hybrid models of public-private engagement and public sector regulation. Their paper shows that the increased interaction and asymmetrical distribution of power and authority between public and private sectors in relation to the commercial drivers of NCDs calls for a profound transformation in both governance and accountability that are required to prioritize and protect public health globally.

The authors also emphasize the need to ensure a strengthened multi-stakeholder governance platform with enough power to provide oversight of private authority, as well as engagement as appropriate.

For more information click here.

Governance, Regulation, and Health Equity

In her Book called  « Regulatory Theory - Foundations and Applications » (published in 2017) Professor Sharon Friel, dedicated a whole chapter to Governance, regulation and health equity in which she analyses the complex causes of human-made health inequities arising from the interaction of political, economic and social factors.The author argues that the fundamental structures of social hierarchy and the socially determined conditions, which ultimately affect health equity, need to be addressed by multiple actors and intersectoral policy instruments.

For more information click here.

Knowledge and perceptions of polio and polio immunization in polio high-risk areas of pakistan

This article discusses the Polio endemic currently taking place in Pakistan and Afghanistan. The success of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative depends on getting this current endemic under control.

For more information, click here.





11.- Upcoming events



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